Drop of 0.87 release.

This commit is contained in:
Ross Duggan 2012-04-14 02:43:53 +01:00
commit b06fd67fc2
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*.mid
*.swp

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Date: 20 October 2009
Version: 0.87
First public release.
* Tweaked email address in contact information.
* Added/updated documentation.
* Tweaked the setup.py file to produce better distributions.
Date: 9 October 2009
Version: 0.86
* added addNote as main interface into package (not
addNoteByNumber). It's been a while since I've cut a release,
so there may be other things that have happened.
* Created distutils package.
* Minor code clean-up.
* Added documentation in-line and in text (MIDIFile.txt).
* All public functions should now be accessed thought
MIDIFile directly, and not the component tracks.
Date: 15 January 2009
Version: 0.85
* Split out from existing work as a separate project.

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--------------------------------------------------------------------------
MIDUTIL, Copyright (c) 2009, Mark Conway Wirt
<emergentmusics) at (gmail . com>
This software is distributed under an Open Source license, the
details of which follow.
Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a
copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"),
to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation
the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense,
and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the
Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included
in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL
THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR
OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE,
ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR
OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------

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README.txt
setup.py
License.txt
CHANGELOG
VERSION
MANIFEST
src/midiutil/MidiFile.py
src/midiutil/__init__.py
examples/single-note-example.py
documentation/Extending.txt
documentation/ClassReference.txt
src/unittests/miditest.py

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Metadata-Version: 1.0
Name: MIDIUtil
Version: 0.87
Summary: MIDIUtil, a MIDI Interface for Python
Home-page: http://www.emergentmusics.org/midiutil/
Author: Mark Conway Wirt
Author-email: emergentmusics) at (gmail . com
License: Copyright (C) 2009, Mark Conway Wirt. See License.txt for details.
Description:
This package provides a simple interface to allow Python programs to
write multi-track MIDI files.
Platform: Platform Independent

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========
MIDIUtil
========
------------
Introduction
------------
MIDIUtil is a pure Python library that allows one to write muti-track
Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) files from within Python
programs. It is object-oriented and allows one to create and write these
files with a minimum of fuss.
MIDIUtil isn't a full implementation of the MIDI specification. The actual
specification is a large, sprawling document which has organically grown
over the course of decades. I have selectively implemented some of the
more useful and common aspects of the specification. The choices have
been somewhat idiosyncratic; I largely implemented what I needed. When
I decided that it could be of use to other people I fleshed it out a bit,
but there are still things missing. Regardless, the code is fairly easy to
understand and well structured. Additions can be made to the library by
anyone with a good working knowledge of the MIDI file format and a good,
working knowledge of Python. Documentation for extending the library
is provided.
This software was originally developed with Python 2.5.2 and it makes use
of some features that were introduced in 2.5. I have used it extensively
in Python 2.6, so it should work in this or any later versions (but I
have not tested it on Python 3).
This software is distributed under an Open Source license and you are
free to use it as you see fit, provided that attribution is maintained.
See License.txt in the source distribution for details.
------------
Installation
------------
To use the library one can either install it on one's system or
copy the midiutil directory of the source distribution to your
project's directory (or to any directory pointed to  by the PYTHONPATH
environment variable). For the Windows platforms an executable installer
is provided. Alternately the source distribution can be downloaded,
un-zipped (or un-tarred), and installed in the standard way:
python setup.py install
On non-Windows platforms (Linux, MacOS, etc.) the software should be
installed in this way. MIDIUtil is pure Python and should work on any
platform to which Python has been ported.
If you do not wish to install in on your system, just copy the
src/midiutil directory to your project's directory or elsewhere on
your PYTHONPATH. If you're using this software in your own projects
you may want to consider distributing the library bundled with yours;
the library is small and self-contained, and such bundling makes things
more convenient for your users. The best way of doing this is probably
to copy the midiutil directory directly to your package directory and
then refer to it with a fully qualified name. This will prevent it from
conflicting with any version of the software that may be installed on
the target system.
-----------
Quick Start
-----------
Using the software is easy:
o The package must be imported into your namespace
o A MIDIFile object is created
o Events (notes, tempo-changes, etc.) are added to the object
o The MIDI file is written to disk.
Detailed documentation is provided; what follows is a simple example
to get you going quickly. In this example we'll create a one track MIDI
File, assign a name and tempo to the track, add a one beat middle-C to
the track, and write it to disk.
#Import the library
from midiutil.MidiFile import MIDIFile
# Create the MIDIFile Object with 1 track
MyMIDI = MIDIFile(1)
# Tracks are numbered from zero. Times are measured in beats.
track = 0
time = 0
# Add track name and tempo.
MyMIDI.addTrackName(track,time,"Sample Track")
MyMIDI.addTempo(track,time,120)
# Add a note. addNote expects the following information:
track = 0
channel = 0
pitch = 60
time = 0
duration = 1
volume = 100
# Now add the note.
MyMIDI.addNote(track,channel,pitch,time,duration,volume)
# And write it to disk.
binfile = open("output.mid", 'wb')
MyMIDI.writeFile(binfile)
binfile.close()
There are several additional event types that can be added and there are
various options available for creating the MIDIFile object, but the above
is sufficient to begin using the library and creating note sequences.
The above code is found in machine-readable form in the examples directory.
A detailed class reference and documentation describing how to extend
the library is provided in the documentation directory.
Have fun!

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This is version 0.87.

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========================
MIDIUtil Class Reference
========================
--------------
class MIDIFile
--------------
A class that represents a full, well-formed MIDI pattern.
This is a container object that contains a header, one or more
tracks, and the data associated with a proper and well-formed
MIDI pattern.
Calling
MyMIDI = MidiFile(tracks, removeDuplicates=True,  deinterleave=True)
normally
MyMIDI = MidiFile(tracks)
Arguments
o tracks: The number of tracks this object contains
o removeDuplicates: If true (the default), the software will
remove duplicate events which have been added. For example,
two notes at the same channel, time, pitch, and duration would
be considered duplicate.
o deinterleave: If True (the default), overlapping notes
(same pitch, same channel) will be modified so that they do
not overlap. Otherwise the sequencing software will need to
figure out how to interpret NoteOff events upon playback.
================
Public Functions
================
---------------------------------------------------
addNote(track, channel, pitch,time,duration,volume)
---------------------------------------------------
Add notes to the MIDIFile object
Use
MyMIDI.addNotes(track,channel,pitch,time, duration, volume)
Arguments
o track: The track to which the note is added.
o channel: the MIDI channel to assign to the note. [Integer, 0-15]
o pitch: the MIDI pitch number [Integer, 0-127].
o time: the time (in beats) at which the note sounds [Float].
o duration: the duration of the note (in beats) [Float].
o lume: the volume (velocity) of the note. [Integer, 0-127].
----------------------------------
addTrackName(track, time,trackName)
----------------------------------
Add a track name to a MIDI track.
Use
MyMIDI.addTrackName(track,time,trackName)
Arguments
o track: The track to which the name is added. [Integer, 0-127].
o time: The time at which the track name is added, in beats
[Float].
o trackName: The track name. [String].
---------------------------
addTempo(track, time,tempo)
---------------------------
Add a tempo event.
Use
MyMIDI.addTempo(track, time, tempo)
Arguments
o track: The track to which the event is added. [Integer, 0-127]
o time: The time at which the event is added, in beats. [Float]
o tempo: The tempo, in Beats per Minute. [Integer]
-----------------------------------------------
addProgramChange(track, channel, time, program)
-----------------------------------------------
Add a MIDI program change event.
Use
MyMIDI.addProgramChange(track,channel, time, program)
Arguments
o track: The track to which the event is added. [Integer, 0-127]
o channel: The channel the event is assigned to. [Integer, 0-15]
o time: The time at which the event is added, in beats. [Float]
o program: the program number. [Integer, 0-127]
--------------------------------------------------------------
addControllerEvent(track, channel,time,eventType, paramerter1)
--------------------------------------------------------------
Add a MIDI controller event.
Use
MyMIDI.addControllerEvent(track, channel, time, eventType, \
parameter1)
Arguments
o track: The track to which the event is added. [Integer, 0-127]
o channel: The channel the event is assigned to. [Integer, 0-15]
o time: The time at which the event is added, in beats. [Float]
o eventType: the controller event type.
o parameter1: The event's parameter. The meaning of which varies
by event type.
---------------------------------------------------------------------
changeNoteTuning(track, tunings, sysExChannel=0x7F, realTime=False, \
tuningProgam=0)
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Change a note's tuning using sysEx change tuning program.
Use
MyMIDI.changeNoteTuning(track,[tunings],realTime=False, \
tuningProgram=0)
Arguments
o track: The track to which the event is added. [Integer, 0-127].
o tunings: A list of tuples in the form (pitchNumber,
frequency).  [[(Integer,Float]]
o realTime: Boolean which sets the real-time flag. Defaults to false.
o sysExChannel: do note use (see below).
o tuningProgram: Tuning program to assign. Defaults to
zero. [Integer, 0-127]
In general the sysExChannel should not be changed (parameter will
be depreciated).
Also note that many software packages and hardware packages do not
implement this standard!
---------------------
writeFile(fileHandle)
---------------------
Write the MIDI File.
Use
MyMIDI.writeFile(filehandle)
Arguments
o filehandle: a file handle that has been opened for binary
writing.
-------------------------------------
addSysEx(track, time, manID, payload)
-------------------------------------
Add a SysEx event
Use
MyMIDI.addSysEx(track,time,ID,payload)
Arguments
o track: The track to which the event is added. [Integer, 0-127].
o time: The time at which the event is added, in beats. [Float].
o ID: The SysEx ID number
o payload: the event payload.
Note: This is a low-level MIDI function, so care must be used in
constructing the payload. It is recommended that higher-level helper
functions be written to wrap this function and construct the payload
if a developer finds him or herself using the function heavily.
---------------------------------------------------------
addUniversalSysEx(track,  time,code, subcode, payload, \
sysExChannel=0x7F,  realTime=False)}f
---------------------------------------------------------
Add a Universal SysEx event.
Use
MyMIDI.addUniversalSysEx(track, time, code, subcode, payload, \
sysExChannel=0x7f, realTime=False)
Arguments
o track: The track to which the event is added. [Integer, 0-127].
o time: The time at which the event is added, in beats. [Float].
o code: The event code. [Integer]
o subcode The event sub-code [Integer]
o payload: The event payload. [Binary string]
o sysExChannel: The SysEx channel.
o realTime: Sets the real-time flag. Defaults to zero.
Note: This is a low-level MIDI function, so care must be used in
constructing the payload. It is recommended that higher-level helper
functions be written to wrap this function and construct the payload
if a developer finds him or herself using the function heavily. As an
example of such a helper function, see the changeNoteTuning function,
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=====================
Extending the Library
=====================
The choice of MIDI event types included in the library is somewhat
idiosyncratic; I included the events I needed for another software
project I was wrote. You may find that you need additional events in
your work. For this reason I am including some instructions on extending
the library. The process isn't too hard (provided you have a working
knowledge of Python and the MIDI standard), so the task shouldn't present
a competent coder too much difficulty. Alternately (if, for example,
you *don't* have a working knowledge of MIDI and don't desire to gain it),
you can submit new feature requests to me, and I will include them into
the development branch of the code, subject to the constraints of time.
To illustrate the process I show below how the MIDI tempo event is
incorporated into the code. This is a relatively simple event, so while
it may not illustrate some of the subtleties of MIDI programing, it
provides a good, illustrative case.
-----------------------
Create a New Event Type
-----------------------
The first order of business is to create a new subclass of the GnericEvent
object of the MIDIFile module. This subclass initializes any specific
instance data that is needed for the MIDI event to be written. In
the case of the tempo event, it is the actual tempo (which is defined
in the MIDI standard to be 60000000 divided by the tempo in beats per
minute). This class should also call the superclass' initializer with
the event time and set the event type (a unique string used internally by
the software) in the __init__() function. In the case of the tempo event:
class tempo(GenericEvent):
def __init__(self,time,tempo):
GenericEvent.__init__(self,time)
self.type = 'tempo'
self.tempo = int(60000000 / tempo)
Next (and this is an embarrassing break of OO programming) the __eq__()
function of the GenericEvent class should be modified so that equality
of these types of events can be calculated. In calculating equivalence
time is always checked, so two tempo events are considered the same if
the have the same tempo value. Thus the following snippet of code from
GenericEvent's _eq__() function accomplishes this goal:
if self.type == 'tempo':
if self.tempo != other.tempo:
return False
If events are equivalent, the code should return False. If they are not
equivalent no return should be called.
---------------------------
Create an Accessor Function
---------------------------
Next, an accessor function should be added to MIDITrack to create an
event of this type. Continuing the example of the tempo event:
def addTempo(self,time,tempo):
self.eventList.append(MIDITrack.tempo(time,tempo))
The public accessor function is via the MIDIFile object, and must include
the track number to which the event is written:
def addTempo(self,track,time,tempo):
self.tracks[track].addTempo(time,tempo)
This is the function you will use in your code to create an event of
the desired type.
-----------------------
Modify processEventList
-----------------------
Next, the logic pertaining to the new event type should be added to
processEventList function of the MIDITrack class. In general this code
will create a MIDIEvent object and set its type, time, ordinality, and
any specific information that is needed for the event type. This object
is then added to the MIDIEventList.
The ordinality (self.ord) is a number that tells the software how to
sequence MIDI events that occur at the same time. The higher the number,
the later in the sequence the event will be written in comparison to
other, simultaneous events.
The relevant section for the tempo event is:
elif thing.type == 'tempo':
event = MIDIEvent()
event.type = "Tempo"
event.time = thing.time * TICKSPERBEAT
event.tempo = thing.tempo
event.ord = 3
self.MIDIEventList.append(event)
Thus if other events occur at the same time, type which have an ordinality
of 1 or 2 will be written to the stream first.
Time needs to be converted from beats (which the accessor function uses)
and MIDI time by multiplying by the constant TICKSPERBEAT. The value
of thing.type is the unique string you defined above, and event.type
is another unique things (they can--and probably should--be the same,
although the coding here is a little sloppy and changes case of the
string).
----------------------------------------
Write the Event Data to the MIDI Stream
----------------------------------------
The last step is to modify the MIDIFile writeEventsToStream function;
here is where some understanding of the MIDI standard is necessary. The
following code shows the creation of a MIDI tempo event:
elif event.type == "Tempo":
code = 0xFF
subcode = 0x51
fourbite = struct.pack('>L', event.tempo)
threebite = fourbite[1:4] # Just discard the MSB
varTime = writeVarLength(event.time)
for timeByte in varTime:
self.MIDIdata = self.MIDIdata + struct.pack('>B',timeByte)
self.MIDIdata = self.MIDIdata + struct.pack('>B',code)
self.MIDIdata = self.MIDIdata + struct.pack('>B',subcode)
self.MIDIdata = self.MIDIdata + struct.pack('>B', 0x03)
self.MIDIdata = self.MIDIdata + threebite
The event.type string ("Tempo") was the one chosen in the processEventList
logic.
The code and subcode are binary values that come from the MIDI
specification.
Next the data is packed into a three byte structure (or a four byte
structure, discarding the most significant byte). Again, the MIDI
specification determines the number of bytes used in the data payload.
The event time should be converted to MIDI variable-length data with the
writeVarLength() function before writing to the stream (as shown above).
The MIDI standard utilizes a slightly bizarre variable length data
record. In it, only seven bits of a word are used to store data; the
eighth bit signifies if more bytes encoding the value follow. The total
length may be 1 to 3 bytes, depending upon the size of the value encoded.
The writeVarLength() function takes care of this conversion for you.
Now the data is written to the binary object self.MIDIdata, which is
the actual MIDI-encoded data stream. As per the MIDI standard, first we
write our variable-length time value. Next we add the event type code and
subcode. Then we write the length of the data payload, which in the case
of the tempo event is three bytes. Lastly, we write the actual payload,
which has been packed into the variable threebite.
Clear as mud!

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#-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Name: MidiFile.py
# Purpose: MIDI file manipulation utilities
#
# Author: Mark Conway Wirt <emergentmusics) at (gmail . com>
#
# Created: 2008/04/17
# Copyright: (c) 2009 Mark Conway Wirt
# License: Please see License.txt for the terms under which this
# software is distributed.
#-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
import struct, sys, math
# TICKSPERBEAT is the number of "ticks" (time measurement in the MIDI file) that
# corresponds to one beat. This number is somewhat arbitrary, but should be chosen
# to provide adequate temporal resolution.
TICKSPERBEAT = 128
controllerEventTypes = {
'pan' : 0x0a
}
class MIDIEvent:
'''
The class to contain the MIDI Event (placed on MIDIEventList.
'''
def __init__(self):
self.type='unknown'
self.time=0
self.ord = 0
def __cmp__(self, other):
''' Sorting function for events.'''
if self.time < other.time:
return -1
elif self.time > other.time:
return 1
else:
if self.ord < other.ord:
return -1
elif self.ord > other.ord:
return 1
else:
return 0
class GenericEvent():
'''The event class from which specific events are derived
'''
def __init__(self,time):
self.time = time
self.type = 'Unknown'
def __eq__(self, other):
'''
Equality operator for Generic Events and derived classes.
In the processing of the event list, we have need to remove duplicates. To do this
we rely on the fact that the classes are hashable, and must therefore have an
equality operator (__hash__() and __eq__() must both be defined).
This is the most embarrassing portion of the code, and anyone who knows about OO
programming would find this almost unbelievable. Here we have a base class that
knows specifics about derived classes, thus breaking the very spirit of
OO programming.
I suppose I should go back and restructure the code, perhaps removing the derived
classes altogether. At some point perhaps I will.
'''
if self.time != other.time or self.type != other.type:
return False
# What follows is code that encodes the concept of equality for each derived
# class. Believe it f you dare.
if self.type == 'note':
if self.pitch != other.pitch or self.channel != other.channel:
return False
if self.type == 'tempo':
if self.tempo != other.tempo:
return False
if self.type == 'programChange':
if self.programNumber != other.programNumber or self.channel != other.channel:
return False
if self.type == 'trackName':
if self.trackName != other.trackName:
return False
if self.type == 'controllerEvent':
if self.parameter1 != other.parameter1 or \
self.parameter2 != other.parameter2 or \
self.channel != other.channel or \
self.eventType != other.eventType:
return False
if self.type == 'SysEx':
if self.manID != other.manID:
return False
if self.type == 'UniversalSysEx':
if self.code != other.code or\
self.subcode != other.subcode or \
self.sysExChannel != other.sysExChannel:
return False
return True
def __hash__(self):
'''
Return a hash code for the object.
This is needed for the removal of duplicate objects from the event list. The only
real requirement for the algorithm is that the hash of equal objects must be equal.
There is probably great opportunity for improvements in the hashing function.
'''
# Robert Jenkin's 32 bit hash.
a = int(self.time)
a = (a+0x7ed55d16) + (a<<12)
a = (a^0xc761c23c) ^ (a>>19)
a = (a+0x165667b1) + (a<<5)
a = (a+0xd3a2646c) ^ (a<<9)
a = (a+0xfd7046c5) + (a<<3)
a = (a^0xb55a4f09) ^ (a>>16)
return a
class MIDITrack:
'''A class that encapsulates a MIDI track
'''
# Nested class definitions.
class note(GenericEvent):
'''A class that encapsulates a note
'''
def __init__(self,channel, pitch,time,duration,volume):
GenericEvent.__init__(self,time)
self.pitch = pitch
self.duration = duration
self.volume = volume
self.type = 'note'
self.channel = channel
def compare(self, other):
'''Compare two notes for equality.
'''
if self.pitch == other.pitch and \
self.time == other.time and \
self.duration == other.duration and \
self.volume == other.volume and \
self.type == other.type and \
self.channel == other.channel:
return True
else:
return False
class tempo(GenericEvent):
'''A class that encapsulates a tempo meta-event
'''
def __init__(self,time,tempo):
GenericEvent.__init__(self,time)
self.type = 'tempo'
self.tempo = int(60000000 / tempo)
class programChange(GenericEvent):
'''A class that encapsulates a program change event.
'''
def __init__(self, channel, time, programNumber):
GenericEvent.__init__(self, time,)
self.type = 'programChange'
self.programNumber = programNumber
self.channel = channel
class SysExEvent(GenericEvent):
'''A class that encapsulates a System Exclusive event.
'''
def __init__(self, time, manID, payload):
GenericEvent.__init__(self, time,)
self.type = 'SysEx'
self.manID = manID
self.payload = payload
class UniversalSysExEvent(GenericEvent):
'''A class that encapsulates a Universal System Exclusive event.
'''
def __init__(self, time, realTime, sysExChannel, code, subcode, payload):
GenericEvent.__init__(self, time,)
self.type = 'UniversalSysEx'
self.realTime = realTime
self.sysExChannel = sysExChannel
self.code = code
self.subcode = subcode
self.payload = payload
class ControllerEvent(GenericEvent):
'''A class that encapsulates a program change event.
'''
def __init__(self, channel, time, eventType, parameter1,):
GenericEvent.__init__(self, time,)
self.type = 'controllerEvent'
self.parameter1 = parameter1
self.channel = channel
self.eventType = eventType
class trackName(GenericEvent):
'''A class that encapsulates a program change event.
'''
def __init__(self, time, trackName):
GenericEvent.__init__(self, time,)
self.type = 'trackName'
self.trackName = trackName
def __init__(self, removeDuplicates, deinterleave):
'''Initialize the MIDITrack object.
'''
self.headerString = struct.pack('cccc','M','T','r','k')
self.dataLength = 0 # Is calculated after the data is in place
self.MIDIdata = ""
self.closed = False
self.eventList = []
self.MIDIEventList = []
self.remdep = removeDuplicates
self.deinterleave = deinterleave
def addNoteByNumber(self,channel, pitch,time,duration,volume):
'''Add a note by chromatic MIDI number
'''
self.eventList.append(MIDITrack.note(channel, pitch,time,duration,volume))
def addControllerEvent(self,channel,time,eventType, paramerter1):
'''
Add a controller event.
'''
self.eventList.append(MIDITrack.ControllerEvent(channel,time,eventType, \
paramerter1))
def addTempo(self,time,tempo):
'''
Add a tempo change (or set) event.
'''
self.eventList.append(MIDITrack.tempo(time,tempo))
def addSysEx(self,time,manID, payload):
'''
Add a SysEx event.
'''
self.eventList.append(MIDITrack.SysExEvent(time, manID, payload))
def addUniversalSysEx(self,time,code, subcode, payload, sysExChannel=0x7F, \
realTime=False):
'''
Add a Universal SysEx event.
'''
self.eventList.append(MIDITrack.UniversalSysExEvent(time, realTime, \
sysExChannel, code, subcode, payload))
def addProgramChange(self,channel, time, program):
'''
Add a program change event.
'''
self.eventList.append(MIDITrack.programChange(channel, time, program))
def addTrackName(self,time,trackName):
'''
Add a track name event.
'''
self.eventList.append(MIDITrack.trackName(time,trackName))
def changeNoteTuning(self, tunings, sysExChannel=0x7F, realTime=False, \
tuningProgam=0):
'''Change the tuning of MIDI notes
'''
payload = struct.pack('>B', tuningProgam)
payload = payload + struct.pack('>B', len(tunings))
for (noteNumber, frequency) in tunings:
payload = payload + struct.pack('>B', noteNumber)
MIDIFreqency = frequencyTransform(frequency)
for byte in MIDIFreqency:
payload = payload + struct.pack('>B', byte)
self.eventList.append(MIDITrack.UniversalSysExEvent(0, realTime, sysExChannel,\
8, 2, payload))
def processEventList(self):
'''
Process the event list, creating a MIDIEventList
For each item in the event list, one or more events in the MIDIEvent
list are created.
'''
# Loop over all items in the eventList
for thing in self.eventList:
if thing.type == 'note':
event = MIDIEvent()
event.type = "NoteOn"
event.time = thing.time * TICKSPERBEAT
event.pitch = thing.pitch
event.volume = thing.volume
event.channel = thing.channel
event.ord = 3
self.MIDIEventList.append(event)
event = MIDIEvent()
event.type = "NoteOff"
event.time = (thing.time + thing.duration) * TICKSPERBEAT
event.pitch = thing.pitch
event.volume = thing.volume
event.channel = thing.channel
event.ord = 2
self.MIDIEventList.append(event)
elif thing.type == 'tempo':
event = MIDIEvent()
event.type = "Tempo"
event.time = thing.time * TICKSPERBEAT
event.tempo = thing.tempo
event.ord = 3
self.MIDIEventList.append(event)
elif thing.type == 'programChange':
event = MIDIEvent()
event.type = "ProgramChange"
event.time = thing.time * TICKSPERBEAT
event.programNumber = thing.programNumber
event.channel = thing.channel
event.ord = 1
self.MIDIEventList.append(event)
elif thing.type == 'trackName':
event = MIDIEvent()
event.type = "TrackName"
event.time = thing.time * TICKSPERBEAT
event.trackName = thing.trackName
event.ord = 0
self.MIDIEventList.append(event)
elif thing.type == 'controllerEvent':
event = MIDIEvent()
event.type = "ControllerEvent"
event.time = thing.time * TICKSPERBEAT
event.eventType = thing.eventType
event.channel = thing.channel
event.paramerter1 = thing.parameter1
event.ord = 1
self.MIDIEventList.append(event)
elif thing.type == 'SysEx':
event = MIDIEvent()
event.type = "SysEx"
event.time = thing.time * TICKSPERBEAT
event.manID = thing.manID
event.payload = thing.payload
event.ord = 1
self.MIDIEventList.append(event)
elif thing.type == 'UniversalSysEx':
event = MIDIEvent()
event.type = "UniversalSysEx"
event.realTime = thing.realTime
event.sysExChannel = thing.sysExChannel
event.time = thing.time * TICKSPERBEAT
event.code = thing.code
event.subcode = thing.subcode
event.payload = thing.payload
event.ord = 1
self.MIDIEventList.append(event)
else:
print "Error in MIDITrack: Unknown event type"
sys.exit(2)
# Assumptions in the code expect the list to be time-sorted.
# self.MIDIEventList.sort(lambda x, y: x.time - y.time)
self.MIDIEventList.sort(lambda x, y: int( 1000 * (x.time - y.time)))
if self.deinterleave:
self.deInterleaveNotes()
def removeDuplicates(self):
'''
Remove duplicates from the eventList.
This function will remove duplicates from the eventList. This is necessary
because we the MIDI event stream can become confused otherwise.
'''
# For this algorithm to work, the events in the eventList must be hashable
# (that is, they must have a __hash__() and __eq__() function defined).
tempDict = {}
for item in self.eventList:
tempDict[item] = 1
self.eventList = tempDict.keys()
# Sort on type, them on time. Necessary because keys() has no requirement to return
# things in any order.
self.eventList.sort(lambda x, y: cmp(x.type , y.type))
self.eventList.sort(lambda x, y: int( 1000 * (x.time - y.time))) #A bit of a hack.
def closeTrack(self):
'''Called to close a track before writing
This function should be called to "close a track," that is to
prepare the actual data stream for writing. Duplicate events are
removed from the eventList, and the MIDIEventList is created.
Called by the parent MIDIFile object.
'''
if self.closed == True:
return
self.closed = True
if self.remdep:
self.removeDuplicates()
self.processEventList()
def writeMIDIStream(self):
'''
Write the meta data and note data to the packed MIDI stream.
'''
#Process the events in the eventList
self.writeEventsToStream()
# Write MIDI close event.
self.MIDIdata = self.MIDIdata + struct.pack('BBBB',0x00,0xFF, \
0x2F,0x00)
# Calculate the entire length of the data and write to the header
self.dataLength = struct.pack('>L',len(self.MIDIdata))
def writeEventsToStream(self):
'''
Write the events in MIDIEvents to the MIDI stream.
'''
for event in self.MIDIEventList:
if event.type == "NoteOn":
code = 0x9 << 4 | event.channel
varTime = writeVarLength(event.time)
for timeByte in varTime:
self.MIDIdata = self.MIDIdata + struct.pack('>B',timeByte)
self.MIDIdata = self.MIDIdata + struct.pack('>B',code)
self.MIDIdata = self.MIDIdata + struct.pack('>B',event.pitch)
self.MIDIdata = self.MIDIdata + struct.pack('>B',event.volume)
elif event.type == "NoteOff":
code = 0x8 << 4 | event.channel
varTime = writeVarLength(event.time)
for timeByte in varTime:
self.MIDIdata = self.MIDIdata + struct.pack('>B',timeByte)
self.MIDIdata = self.MIDIdata + struct.pack('>B',code)
self.MIDIdata = self.MIDIdata + struct.pack('>B',event.pitch)
self.MIDIdata = self.MIDIdata + struct.pack('>B',event.volume)
elif event.type == "Tempo":
code = 0xFF
subcode = 0x51
fourbite = struct.pack('>L', event.tempo)
threebite = fourbite[1:4] # Just discard the MSB
varTime = writeVarLength(event.time)
for timeByte in varTime:
self.MIDIdata = self.MIDIdata + struct.pack('>B',timeByte)
self.MIDIdata = self.MIDIdata + struct.pack('>B',code)
self.MIDIdata = self.MIDIdata + struct.pack('>B',subcode)
self.MIDIdata = self.MIDIdata + struct.pack('>B', 0x03) # Data length: 3
self.MIDIdata = self.MIDIdata + threebite
elif event.type == 'ProgramChange':
code = 0xC << 4 | event.channel
varTime = writeVarLength(event.time)
for timeByte in varTime:
self.MIDIdata = self.MIDIdata + struct.pack('>B',timeByte)
self.MIDIdata = self.MIDIdata + struct.pack('>B',code)
self.MIDIdata = self.MIDIdata + struct.pack('>B',event.programNumber)
elif event.type == 'TrackName':
varTime = writeVarLength(event.time)
for timeByte in varTime:
self.MIDIdata = self.MIDIdata + struct.pack('>B',timeByte)
self.MIDIdata = self.MIDIdata + struct.pack('B',0xFF) # Meta-event
self.MIDIdata = self.MIDIdata + struct.pack('B',0X03) # Event Type
dataLength = len(event.trackName)
dataLenghtVar = writeVarLength(dataLength)
for i in range(0,len(dataLenghtVar)):
self.MIDIdata = self.MIDIdata + struct.pack("b",dataLenghtVar[i])
self.MIDIdata = self.MIDIdata + event.trackName
elif event.type == "ControllerEvent":
code = 0xB << 4 | event.channel
varTime = writeVarLength(event.time)
for timeByte in varTime:
self.MIDIdata = self.MIDIdata + struct.pack('>B',timeByte)
self.MIDIdata = self.MIDIdata + struct.pack('>B',code)
self.MIDIdata = self.MIDIdata + struct.pack('>B',event.eventType)
self.MIDIdata = self.MIDIdata + struct.pack('>B',event.paramerter1)
elif event.type == "SysEx":
code = 0xF0
varTime = writeVarLength(event.time)
for timeByte in varTime:
self.MIDIdata = self.MIDIdata + struct.pack('>B',timeByte)
self.MIDIdata = self.MIDIdata + struct.pack('>B', code)
payloadLength = writeVarLength(len(event.payload)+2)
for lenByte in payloadLength:
self.MIDIdata = self.MIDIdata + struct.pack('>B',lenByte)
self.MIDIdata = self.MIDIdata + struct.pack('>B', event.manID)
self.MIDIdata = self.MIDIdata + event.payload
self.MIDIdata = self.MIDIdata + struct.pack('>B',0xF7)
elif event.type == "UniversalSysEx":
code = 0xF0
varTime = writeVarLength(event.time)
for timeByte in varTime:
self.MIDIdata = self.MIDIdata + struct.pack('>B',timeByte)
self.MIDIdata = self.MIDIdata + struct.pack('>B', code)
# Do we need to add a length?
payloadLength = writeVarLength(len(event.payload)+5)
for lenByte in payloadLength:
self.MIDIdata = self.MIDIdata + struct.pack('>B',lenByte)
if event.realTime :
self.MIDIdata = self.MIDIdata + struct.pack('>B', 0x7F)
else:
self.MIDIdata = self.MIDIdata + struct.pack('>B', 0x7E)
self.MIDIdata = self.MIDIdata + struct.pack('>B', event.sysExChannel)
self.MIDIdata = self.MIDIdata + struct.pack('>B', event.code)
self.MIDIdata = self.MIDIdata + struct.pack('>B', event.subcode)
self.MIDIdata = self.MIDIdata + event.payload
self.MIDIdata = self.MIDIdata + struct.pack('>B',0xF7)
def deInterleaveNotes(self):
'''Correct Interleaved notes.
Because we are writing multiple notes in no particular order, we
can have notes which are interleaved with respect to their start
and stop times. This method will correct that. It expects that the
MIDIEventList has been time-ordered.
'''
tempEventList = []
stack = {}
for event in self.MIDIEventList:
if event.type == 'NoteOn':
if stack.has_key(str(event.pitch)+str(event.channel)):
stack[str(event.pitch)+str(event.channel)].append(event.time)
else:
stack[str(event.pitch)+str(event.channel)] = [event.time]
tempEventList.append(event)
elif event.type == 'NoteOff':
if len(stack[str(event.pitch)+str(event.channel)]) > 1:
event.time = stack[str(event.pitch)+str(event.channel)].pop()
tempEventList.append(event)
else:
stack[str(event.pitch)+str(event.channel)].pop()
tempEventList.append(event)
else:
tempEventList.append(event)
self.MIDIEventList = tempEventList
# A little trickery here. We want to make sure that NoteOff events appear
# before NoteOn events, so we'll do two sorts -- on on type, one on time.
# This may have to be revisited, as it makes assumptions about how
# the internal sort works, and is in essence creating a sort on a primary
# and secondary key.
self.MIDIEventList.sort(lambda x, y: cmp(x.type , y.type))
self.MIDIEventList.sort(lambda x, y: int( 1000 * (x.time - y.time)))
def adjustTime(self,origin):
'''
Adjust Times to be relative, and zero-origined
'''
if len(self.MIDIEventList) == 0:
return
tempEventList = []
runningTime = 0
for event in self.MIDIEventList:
adjustedTime = event.time - origin
event.time = adjustedTime - runningTime
runningTime = adjustedTime
tempEventList.append(event)
self.MIDIEventList = tempEventList
def writeTrack(self,fileHandle):
'''
Write track to disk.
'''
if not self.closed:
self.closeTrack()
fileHandle.write(self.headerString)
fileHandle.write(self.dataLength)
fileHandle.write(self.MIDIdata)
class MIDIHeader:
'''
Class to encapsulate the MIDI header structure.
This class encapsulates a MIDI header structure. It isn't used for much,
but it will create the appropriately packed identifier string that all
MIDI files should contain. It is used by the MIDIFile class to create a
complete and well formed MIDI pattern.
'''
def __init__(self,numTracks):
''' Initialize the data structures
'''
self.headerString = struct.pack('cccc','M','T','h','d')
self.headerSize = struct.pack('>L',6)
# Format 1 = multi-track file
self.format = struct.pack('>H',1)
self.numTracks = struct.pack('>H',numTracks)
self.ticksPerBeat = struct.pack('>H',TICKSPERBEAT)
def writeFile(self,fileHandle):
fileHandle.write(self.headerString)
fileHandle.write(self.headerSize)
fileHandle.write(self.format)
fileHandle.write(self.numTracks)
fileHandle.write(self.ticksPerBeat)
class MIDIFile:
'''Class that represents a full, well-formed MIDI pattern.
This is a container object that contains a header, one or more tracks,
and the data associated with a proper and well-formed MIDI pattern.
Calling:
MyMIDI = MidiFile(tracks, removeDuplicates=True, deinterleave=True)
normally
MyMIDI = MidiFile(tracks)
Arguments:
tracks: The number of tracks this object contains
removeDuplicates: If true (the default), the software will remove duplicate
events which have been added. For example, two notes at the same channel,
time, pitch, and duration would be considered duplicate.
deinterleave: If True (the default), overlapping notes (same pitch, same
channel) will be modified so that they do not overlap. Otherwise the sequencing
software will need to figure out how to interpret NoteOff events upon playback.
'''
def __init__(self, numTracks, removeDuplicates=True, deinterleave=True):
'''
Initialize the class
'''
self.header = MIDIHeader(numTracks)
self.tracks = list()
self.numTracks = numTracks
self.closed = False
for i in range(0,numTracks):
self.tracks.append(MIDITrack(removeDuplicates, deinterleave))
# Public Functions. These (for the most part) wrap the MIDITrack functions, where most
# Processing takes place.
def addNote(self,track, channel, pitch,time,duration,volume):
"""
Add notes to the MIDIFile object
Use:
MyMIDI.addNotes(track,channel,pitch,time, duration, volume)
Arguments:
track: The track to which the note is added.
channel: the MIDI channel to assign to the note. [Integer, 0-15]
pitch: the MIDI pitch number [Integer, 0-127].
time: the time (in beats) at which the note sounds [Float].
duration: the duration of the note (in beats) [Float].
volume: the volume (velocity) of the note. [Integer, 0-127].
"""
self.tracks[track].addNoteByNumber(channel, pitch, time, duration, volume)
def addTrackName(self,track, time,trackName):
"""
Add a track name to a MIDI track.
Use:
MyMIDI.addTrackName(track,time,trackName)
Argument:
track: The track to which the name is added. [Integer, 0-127].
time: The time at which the track name is added, in beats [Float].
trackName: The track name. [String].
"""
self.tracks[track].addTrackName(time,trackName)
def addTempo(self,track, time,tempo):
"""
Add a tempo event.
Use:
MyMIDI.addTempo(track, time, tempo)
Arguments:
track: The track to which the event is added. [Integer, 0-127].
time: The time at which the event is added, in beats. [Float].
tempo: The tempo, in Beats per Minute. [Integer]
"""
self.tracks[track].addTempo(time,tempo)
def addProgramChange(self,track, channel, time, program):
"""
Add a MIDI program change event.
Use:
MyMIDI.addProgramChange(track,channel, time, program)
Arguments:
track: The track to which the event is added. [Integer, 0-127].
channel: The channel the event is assigned to. [Integer, 0-15].
time: The time at which the event is added, in beats. [Float].
program: the program number. [Integer, 0-127].
"""
self.tracks[track].addProgramChange(channel, time, program)
def addControllerEvent(self,track, channel,time,eventType, paramerter1):
"""
Add a MIDI controller event.
Use:
MyMIDI.addControllerEvent(track, channel, time, eventType, parameter1)
Arguments:
track: The track to which the event is added. [Integer, 0-127].
channel: The channel the event is assigned to. [Integer, 0-15].
time: The time at which the event is added, in beats. [Float].
eventType: the controller event type.
parameter1: The event's parameter. The meaning of which varies by event type.
"""
self.tracks[track].addControllerEvent(channel,time,eventType, paramerter1)
def changeNoteTuning(self, track, tunings, sysExChannel=0x7F, \
realTime=False, tuningProgam=0):
"""
Change a note's tuning using SysEx change tuning program.
Use:
MyMIDI.changeNoteTuning(track,[tunings],realTime=False, tuningProgram=0)
Arguments:
track: The track to which the event is added. [Integer, 0-127].
tunings: A list of tuples in the form (pitchNumber, frequency).
[[(Integer,Float]]
realTime: Boolean which sets the real-time flag. Defaults to false.
sysExChannel: do note use (see below).
tuningProgram: Tuning program to assign. Defaults to zero. [Integer, 0-127]
In general the sysExChannel should not be changed (parameter will be depreciated).
Also note that many software packages and hardware packages do not implement
this standard!
"""
self.tracks[track].changeNoteTuning(tunings, sysExChannel, realTime,\
tuningProgam)
def writeFile(self,fileHandle):
'''
Write the MIDI File.
Use:
MyMIDI.writeFile(filehandle)
Arguments:
filehandle: a file handle that has been opened for binary writing.
'''
self.header.writeFile(fileHandle)
#Close the tracks and have them create the MIDI event data structures.
self.close()
#Write the MIDI Events to file.
for i in range(0,self.numTracks):
self.tracks[i].writeTrack(fileHandle)
def addSysEx(self,track, time, manID, payload):
"""
Add a SysEx event
Use:
MyMIDI.addSysEx(track,time,ID,payload)
Arguments:
track: The track to which the event is added. [Integer, 0-127].
time: The time at which the event is added, in beats. [Float].
ID: The SysEx ID number
payload: the event payload.
Note: This is a low-level MIDI function, so care must be used in
constructing the payload. It is recommended that higher-level helper
functions be written to wrap this function and construct the payload if
a developer finds him or herself using the function heavily.
"""
self.tracks[track].addSysEx(time,manID, payload)
def addUniversalSysEx(self,track, time,code, subcode, payload, \
sysExChannel=0x7F, realTime=False):
"""
Add a Universal SysEx event.
Use:
MyMIDI.addUniversalSysEx(track, time, code, subcode, payload,\
sysExChannel=0x7f, realTime=False)
Arguments:
track: The track to which the event is added. [Integer, 0-127].
time: The time at which the event is added, in beats. [Float].
code: The even code. [Integer]
subcode The event sub-code [Integer]
payload: The event payload. [Binary string]
sysExChannel: The SysEx channel.
realTime: Sets the real-time flag. Defaults to zero.
Note: This is a low-level MIDI function, so care must be used in
constructing the payload. It is recommended that higher-level helper
functions be written to wrap this function and construct the payload if
a developer finds him or herself using the function heavily. As an example
of such a helper function, see the changeNoteTuning function, both here and
in MIDITrack.
"""
self.tracks[track].addUniversalSysEx(time,code, subcode, payload, sysExChannel,\
realTime)
def shiftTracks(self, offset=0):
"""Shift tracks to be zero-origined, or origined at offset.
Note that the shifting of the time in the tracks uses the MIDIEventList -- in other
words it is assumed to be called in the stage where the MIDIEventList has been
created. This function, however, it meant to operate on the eventList itself.
"""
origin = 1000000 # A little silly, but we'll assume big enough
for track in self.tracks:
if len(track.eventList) > 0:
for event in track.eventList:
if event.time < origin:
origin = event.time
for track in self.tracks:
tempEventList = []
#runningTime = 0
for event in track.eventList:
adjustedTime = event.time - origin
#event.time = adjustedTime - runningTime + offset
event.time = adjustedTime + offset
#runningTime = adjustedTime
tempEventList.append(event)
track.eventList = tempEventList
#End Public Functions ########################
def close(self):
'''Close the MIDIFile for further writing.
To close the File for events, we must close the tracks, adjust the time to be
zero-origined, and have the tracks write to their MIDI Stream data structure.
'''
if self.closed == True:
return
for i in range(0,self.numTracks):
self.tracks[i].closeTrack()
# We want things like program changes to come before notes when they are at the
# same time, so we sort the MIDI events by their ordinality
self.tracks[i].MIDIEventList.sort()
origin = self.findOrigin()
for i in range(0,self.numTracks):
self.tracks[i].adjustTime(origin)
self.tracks[i].writeMIDIStream()
self.closed = True
def findOrigin(self):
'''Find the earliest time in the file's tracks.append.
'''
origin = 1000000 # A little silly, but we'll assume big enough
# Note: This code assumes that the MIDIEventList has been sorted, so this should be insured
# before it is called. It is probably a poor design to do this.
# TODO: -- Consider making this less efficient but more robust by not assuming the list to be sorted.
for track in self.tracks:
if len(track.MIDIEventList) > 0:
if track.MIDIEventList[0].time < origin:
origin = track.MIDIEventList[0].time
return origin
def writeVarLength(i):
'''Accept an input, and write a MIDI-compatible variable length stream
The MIDI format is a little strange, and makes use of so-called variable
length quantities. These quantities are a stream of bytes. If the most
significant bit is 1, then more bytes follow. If it is zero, then the
byte in question is the last in the stream
'''
input = int(i)
output = [0,0,0,0]
reversed = [0,0,0,0]
count = 0
result = input & 0x7F
output[count] = result