The SSH host key has changed on 8 April, 2022 to this one: SHA256:573uTBSeh74kvOo0HJXi5ijdzRm8me27suzNEDlGyrQ
1
0
Fork 0
Online Git Reference Forked from https://github.com/git/git-reference http://gitref.org
You can not select more than 25 topics Topics must start with a letter or number, can include dashes ('-') and can be up to 35 characters long.
 
 
 

142 lines
4.7 KiB

---
layout: reference
---
<div class="box">
<h2>Getting and Creating Projects</h2>
<div class="block">
<p>
In order to do anything in Git, you have to have a Git repository. This
is where Git stores the data for the snapshots you are saving.
</p>
<p>
There are two main ways to get a Git repository. One way is to simply
initialize a new one from an existing directory, such as a new project or
a project new to source control. The second way is to clone one from a
public Git repository, as you would do if you wanted a copy or wanted to
work with someone on a project. We will cover both of these here.
</p>
</div>
</div>
<div class="box">
<h2>
<span class="docs">
<a target="new" href="http://git-scm.com/docs/git-init">docs</a> &nbsp;
<a target="new" href="http://git-scm.com/book/en/Git-Basics-Getting-a-Git-Repository#Initializing-a-Repository-in-an-Existing-Directory">book</a>
</span>
<a name="init">git init</a>
<span class="desc">initializes a directory as a Git repository</span>
</h2>
<div class="block">
<p>To create a repository from an existing directory of files, you can
simply run <code>git init</code> in that directory. For example,
let's say we have a directory with a few files in it, like this:
</p>
<pre>
<b>$ cd konnichiwa</b>
<b>$ ls</b>
README hello.rb
</pre>
<p>This is a project where we are writing examples of the "Hello World"
program in every language. So far, we just have Ruby, but hey, it's
a start. To start version controlling this with Git, we can simply
run <code>git init</code>.
</p>
<pre>
<b>$ git init</b>
Initialized empty Git repository in /opt/konnichiwa/.git/
</pre>
<p>Now you can see that there is a <code>.git</code> subdirectory in your
project. This is your Git repository where all the data of your
project snapshots are stored.
</p>
<pre>
<b>$ ls -a</b>
. .. .git README hello.rb
</pre>
<p>Congratulations, you now have a skeleton Git repository and can start
snapshotting your project.
</p>
<p class="nutshell">
<strong>In a nutshell</strong>, you use <code>git init</code> to make an
existing directory of content into a new Git repository. You can do this
in any directory at any time, completely locally.</p>
</div>
</div>
<div class="box">
<h2>
<span class="docs">
<a target="new" href="http://git-scm.com/docs/git-clone">docs</a> &nbsp;
<a target="new" href="http://git-scm.com/book/en/Git-Basics-Getting-a-Git-Repository#Cloning-an-Existing-Repository">book</a>
</span>
<a name="clone">git clone</a>
<span class="desc">copy a git repository so you can add to it</span>
</h2>
<div class="block">
<p>
If you need to collaborate with someone on a project, or if you want to
get a copy of a project so you can look at or use the code, you will
clone it. You simply run the <code>git clone [url]</code> command with
the URL of the project you want to copy.
</p>
<pre>
<b>$ git clone git://github.com/schacon/simplegit.git</b>
Initialized empty Git repository in /private/tmp/simplegit/.git/
remote: Counting objects: 100, done.
remote: Compressing objects: 100% (86/86), done.
remote: Total 100 (delta 35), reused 0 (delta 0)
Receiving objects: 100% (100/100), 9.51 KiB, done.
Resolving deltas: 100% (35/35), done.
<b>$ cd simplegit/</b>
<b>$ ls</b>
README Rakefile <span class="blue">lib</span>
</pre>
<p>
This will copy the entire history of that project so you have it locally
and it will give you a working directory of the main branch of that project
so you can look at the code or start editing it. If you change into the
new directory, you can see the <code>.git</code> subdirectory - that is
where all the project data is.
</p>
<pre>
<b>$ ls -a</b>
. .. <span class="blue">.git</span> README Rakefile <span class="blue">lib</span>
<b>$ cd .git</b>
<b>$ ls</b>
HEAD description <span class="blue">info</span> packed-refs
<span class="blue">branches hooks logs refs</span>
config index <span class="blue">objects</span>
</pre>
<p>
By default, Git will create a directory that is the same name as the
project in the URL you give it - basically whatever is after the last slash
of the URL. If you want something different, you can just put it at the
end of the command, after the URL.
</p>
<p class="nutshell">
<strong>In a nutshell</strong>, you use <code>git clone</code> to get a
local copy of a Git repository so you can look at it or start modifying
it.</p>
</div>
</div>
<p><a class="page-button next-page" href="/basic">On to Basic Snapshotting &#187;</a></p>