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Python implementation of [Earthstar](
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"""Base32 encoding/decoding
For base32 encoding we use rfc4648, no padding, lowercase, prefixed with "b".
Base32 character set: 'abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz234567'
The Multibase format adds a "b" prefix to specify this particular encoding.
We leave the "b" prefix there because we don't want the encoded string
to start with a number (so we can use it as a URL location).
When decoding, we require it to start with a "b" -- no other multibase formats are allowed.
The decoding must be strict (it doesn't allow a 1 in place of an i, etc).
from base64 import b32decode, b32encode
def base32_bytes_to_string(bytes_: bytes) -> str:
"""Encode uint8array bytes to base32 string"""
return 'b' + b32encode(bytes_).lower().strip(b'=').decode('utf-8')
def base32_string_to_bytes(string: str) -> bytes:
"""Decode base32 string to a uint8array of bytes
:raises ValidationError: if the string is bad
if not string.startswith("b"):
raise ValueError(
f"can't decode base32 string - it should start with a 'b'. {str}"
string = string[1:]
# this library combines padding and looseness settings into a single "loose" option, so
# we have to set "loose: true" in order to handle unpadded inputs.
# with a custom codec, loose mode:
# -- allows padding or no padding -- we have to check for this
# -- does not allow uppercase -- good
# -- does not allow 1/i substitution -- good
# make sure no padding characters are on the end
if string.endswith("="):
raise ValueError(
"can't decode base32 string - it contains padding characters ('=')"
pad_length = 8 - len(string) % 8
string += '=' * pad_length
return b32decode(string.upper())